Exegesis of John 11:1-46 – Lazarus Raised from the Dead


Personal Preparation

I spent time in prayer, entreating the Lord to give me insight into the passage and that the Lord would make my heart ready to hear the teaching of this text and apply it to my own walk with the Lord.

Analyze the Text’s Content

This section will analyze some key features of the syntactical, lexical, context, and background elements of John 11:1-46 so as to properly identify each element and explain the exegetical importance of each element in preparation for preaching the text. The focus of this section will not be on exposition but will rather focus on a discussion about each of the elements which are exegetically significant as well as word studies, and any historical background that will add to the understanding of the text.

Syntactical Analysis

Verse 1

Λάζαρος, nominative singular masculine used as a proper name and nominative of apposition to τις ἀσθενῶν[1] therefore modifying the translation of τις to be “a certain one” rather than “someone”[2]

Μαρίας καὶ Μάρθας, both nouns are connected by a coordinating conjunction (καὶ), and both are genitive singular feminine proper names,[3] in a genitive of description relationship with τῆς κώμης.[4]

τῆς ἀδελφῆς, genitive, singular, feminine, a genitive of apposition to Μάρθας. αὐτῆς, pronoun, personal, third person, genitive, singular, feminine, a genitive of relationship,[5] explaining that Martha is Mary’s sister.

Verse 2

ἡ ἀλείψασα, aorist, active, participle, singular, nominative, feminine in apposition to Μαριὰμ.[6]

μύρῳ, noun, dative, singular, neuter, an instrumental dative, describing that which Mary anointed the master with, mainly perfume.[7]

ἐκμάξασα, aorist, active, participle, singular, nominative, feminine in apposition to Μαριὰμ.[8]

ταῖς θριξὶν, dative, plural, feminine noun, an instrumental dative,[9] describing with what Mary wiped dry the feet of the master, with her hair. [10]

Verse 3

ἀσθενεῖ, verb, present, active, indicative, third person, singular, a progressive present, describing action in progress, “at this present time is sick,” especially used in narrative.[11]

Verse 4

δοξασθῇ, verb, aorist, passive, subjunctive, third person, singular with ἵνα purpose clause.[12] This conjunction indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[13] The sickness will therefore result not only in glory to God, but in the end, that the Son might be given glory through it.

Verse 7

ἔπειτα, adverb, “a marker for a sequence of time or events.”[14] Moving the narrative alone, giving specific emphasis to time, and the order in which these events occurred.

Ἄγωμεν, verb, present, active, subjunctive, first person, plural, an hortatory subjunctive,[15] used here (in the first person plural) to exhort oneself and ones associates.[16]

Verse 8

Λιθάσαι, verb, aorist, active, infinitive serving as a complementary infinitive[17] of ἐζήτουν,[18] completing the thought of the “seeking” of the Jews, mainly they were seeking to stone Jesus.

Verse 9

περιπατῇ, verb, present, active, subjunctive, third person, singular, with ἐάν an adverbial, conditional conjunction making this a third class conditional sentence[19] being that it is ἐάν with a subjective mood verb.[20] The third class condition denotes the condition as “uncertain of fulfillment, but still likely – it portrays what is “likely to occur in the future, what could possibly occur.”[21] In this context, it is clear that Jesus is giving a hypothetical situation to illustrate his point, “If someone walks around in the day.”

προσκόπτει, gnomic present,[22] active, indicative, third person, singular verb with a negative particle οὐ.[23] Therefore, the one who walks in the day, will, as a general truth not stumble. The gnomic present is used to make a statement about a general, timeless truth, as it is here.[24]

Verse 13

εἰρήκει, consummative pluperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular verb.[25] The consummative pluperfect (also known as extensive pluperfect) emphasizes the completion of an action in past time, without really focusing on the current results.[26] In this case, it makes it clear that the narrator is speaking, being that he has withdrawn from the scene in the narrative in order to explain in more detail something that those in the story were possibly unaware of.

Verse 15

πιστεύσητε, aorist, active, subjunctive, second person, plural verb with ἵνα purpose clause.[27] This conjunction (ἵνα) indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[28] The reason for Jesus’ rejoicing was not because Lazarus had died, but rather that because Lazarus had died “they might believe”

ὅτι, adverbial, causal conjunction, giving the basis or the grounds for the belief.[29] For if Christ had gone earlier (and assumedly healed Lazarus) there would not have been opportunity for belief. Therefore Jesus’ absence provided opportunity for belief.

Verse 16

συμμαθηταῖς, dative, plural, masculine noun, meaning “fellow disciples,”[30] the indirect object of εἶπεν, denoting to whom Thomas was speaking.

Verse 19

παραμυθήσωνται, aorist, middle, subjunctive, third person, plural verb with ἵνα purpose clause.[31] This conjunction (ἵνα) indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[32] Therefore many of the Jews had come, with the purpose, or aim, of “consoling”[33] Martha and Mary in regards to the death of their brother.

Verse 22

αἰτήσῃ, aorist, middle, subjunctive, second person, singular verb with ὅσα ἂν, relative clause,[34] therefore that which asked for is unspecified,[35] and in this case translated as “whatever you ask.”[36]

Verse 23

Ἀναστήσεται predictive future, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb denoting that something, mainly Lazarus rising, will come to pass. The time from when such a verb is used and the fulfillment is unknown; only that it will happen.[37]

Verse 24

ἀναστήσεται, future, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb with prepositional phrase marked by ἐν. Martha affirms Jesus’ statement that Lazarus will rise again, but gets more specific as far as when, mainly: “in the resurrection at the last day.”

Verse 25

ζήσεται, predictive future, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb denoting that something, mainly those that believes in Jesus will live; it will come to pass even if they die – it is certain. The time from when such a verb is used and the fulfillment is unknown; only that it will happen.[38]

Verse 28

λάθρᾳ, adverb of manner.[39] Modifying εἰποῦσα, telling the manner in which Martha spoke to Mary, mainly “secretly,” or “privately.”[40]

Verse 29

ταχὺ, adverb of manner.[41] Modifying ἠγέρθη, informing the manner in which Mary stood up, “quickly.”[42]

Verse 31

παραμυθούμενοι, present, middle, participle, plural, nominative, masculine attributive participle of Ἰουδαῖοι.[43]

ταχέως, ταχὺ, adverb of manner.[44] Modifying ἀνέστη, informing the manner in which Mary stood up, “quickly,”[45] but this time it is in regards to the crowd seeing her get up and then following her.

δόξαντες, aorist, active, causal participle, plural, nominative, masculine showing the cause or reason or ground of the action of the finite verb.[46] Therefore, the Jews followed Mary because they thought she was going to the tomb to grieve.

κλαύσῃ, aorist, active, subjunctive, third person, singular verb with ἵνα purpose clause.[47] This conjunction (ἵνα) indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[48] The crowd thought that Mary had gotten up for the purpose of going to grieve at the tomb.

Verse 33

κλαίουσαν, present, active, participle, singular, accusative, feminine serving as the object complement with αὐτὴν.

συνελθόντας, aorist, active, participle, plural, accusative, masculine serving as a substantive participle as the direct object along with αὐτὴν of εἶδεν. Jesus saw her (Mary) and the ones coming together with her.

ἐνεβριμήσατο, ingressive aorist, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb. The ingressive aorist stresses the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state.[49] The context (when he saw) shows that Jesus’ action started in the moment he saw; therefore a translation of “he became deeply moved” best communicates the scene.

ἐτάραξεν, aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular – also an ingressive aorist, linked with the previous ingressive by the coordinating conjunction καὶ. The ingressive aorist stresses the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state.[50] Therefore translation should reflect this beginning, but because of the coordinating conjunction and the previous ingressive aorist, simply stating, “and troubled” would suffice because the notion of the action beginning is giving in the first verb and carried over by the coordinating conjunction to this verb.

Verse 34

τεθείκατε, perfect, active, indicative, second person, plural verb with Ποῦ[51] serving as an interrogative indicative which is a question that expects an assertion to be made, it expects a declarative indicative in answer to the question.[52] Therefore, when Jesus asks where they have laid Lazarus, he expects an answer to be given.

Verse 35

ἐδάκρυσεν, ingressive aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular verb. The ingressive aorist stresses the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state.[53] The context places emphasis on order of occurrence, only after they answered Jesus question as to where Lazarus was, telling him to come and see does he cry. Or rather, “he began to cry,” or “he burst into tears.”[54]

Verse 36

ἐφίλει, imperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular verb with πῶς[55] as an exclamation[56] of the declarative indicative nature of the verb (ἐφίλει). The indicative is used in this case to present an unqualified statement.[57]

Verse 37

ἀνοίξας, aorist, active, substantive participle, singular, nominative, masculine serving as the subject of Οὐκ ἐδύνατο. Translated as, “Could not this man who opened the eyes…”

ποιῆσαι, aorist, active, complementary infinitive of Οὐκ ἐδύνατο, serving as a “helper” verb completing the thought of what Jesus was able to do, that is, he was able (Οὐκ ἐδύνατο) to make or cause (ἀνοίξας).[58]

Verse 38

ἐμβριμώμενος, present, middle, participle, singular, nominative, masculine, a temporal participle of contemporaneous action with ἔρχεται.[59] This normally should be translated “while doing.” In this context, the temporal participle of contemporaneous action shows that when Jesus came to the tomb, he was “deeply moved” at the same time. The use of the commas in the NASB shows this contemporaneous action well in the English.

Verse 39

τετελευτηκότος, perfect, active, participle, singular, genitive, masculine, intensive perfect,[60] serving as a genitive of relationship to ἀδελφὴ.[61] The intensive perfect emphasizes the result, or current state produced by a past action (in this case, death).[62]

ὄζει, descriptive present, active, indicative, third person, singular verb. The descriptive (also known as Progressive Present) is used to describe a current scene, progress within a scene, especially in narrative.[63] It normally involves continuous action, therefore in this context, it is putting emphasis on the current, at this present time, right now “stink” in the tomb, and the consequences if the tomb was opened.

Verse 41

εὐχαριστῶ, present, active, indicative, first person, singular, a progressive present emphasizing the current scene in progress, the “right now,” and therefore a legitimate translation could be, “right now, I give you thanks.”

Verse 43

ἐκραύγασεν, constative aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular verb. The constative aorist places no emphasis on the nature of the verb, but stresses only the fact that it occurred.[64]

δεῦρο, imperative adverb, almost used as a verb[65] translated with ἔξω as “come out!”

Verse 44

τεθνηκὼς, perfect, active, participle, singular, nominative, masculine, subjunctive participle serving as the subject of ἐξῆλθεν, “the one who had died came out.”[66]

Verse 46

δὲ, contrastive particle contrasting those that believed and those that did not.[67]

Lexical Analysis

There are two words among many that are essential to the understanding of this passage. The first is πιστεύω and the second is ἀγαπάω.

Word Study of πιστεύω

This word is used in this passage for the first time in John 11:15 where Jesus states that He is glad he was not there to prevent Lazarus’s death so that his disciples might believe. The word means, “To consider something to be true and therefore worthy of one’s trust, belief”[68] It can also mean to entrust something to someone (Luke 16:11).[69] The object of the word is often God’s Word, and therefore scripture (John 2:22), the law and the prophets (Acts 24:14), what the prophets said (Luke 24:25), in the prophets (Acts 26:17), Moses or his writings (John 5:46f.), and what God said at the current time for example, through an angel (Luke 1:20, 45; Acts 27:25).[70] The word can also include the notion of obeying (as seen especially in Hebrews 11).[71] Paul particularly uses πιστεύω as a synonym of obedience (compare Romans 1:8 with 15:18).[72] To refuse to believe is not to obey the righteousness which the Gospel offers for faith.”[73] In the Gospel of John, the noun never occurs, but the verb is quite common and is used generally to denote the acceptance of the message about Jesus.[74] In the context of John 11, we see this belief to be one that Jesus desires people to place in him, and that through belief in him, salvation will come (John 11:25).

Word Study of ἀγαπάω

This word means simply, love, but can and does have a wider range of meaning. It can mean to “have a warm regard for and interest in another,” “cherish,” “have affection for.”[75] The meaning, “to be grateful”[76] is suggested in Luke 7:47, when Jesus asks, who will love more, someone who was forgiven much, or forgiven little. The word can also mean, “to love based on its regarded value” (John 12:43).[77] This love can be between human beings (such as in Matt. 5:43; Eph. 5:25, 28, 33; Rom. 13:8), or directed from humans to transcendent beings (such as in John 8:42; 1 Pet. 1:8). This love can also be between transcendent beings and humans (Rom. 8:37; 9:13; 2 Thess. 2:16) or between persons of the Godhead (John 3:35; 10:17; 17:26).[78] In the New Testament, “Jesus stands plainly and consciously in the moral tradition of His people. But He demands love with an exclusiveness….love is a matter of will and action….He demands decision and readiness for God and for God alone in an unconditional manner which startles His hearers.”[79] Jesus brought a new meaning to the word, new terms as it were, for while before it was heard that you love your friends and hate your enemies, he called men to love their enemies (Matt. 5:43-44). In the context of this passage, it is clear Jesus felt a strong affection for Lazarus and his sisters (John 11:5), they had a special place in his heart, but in the end, it is very hard to separate Jesus’ love for these, and his love for all who are his (John 13:1). For his love was proved to be true in his death, through which salvation came to all who believe. There is no greater love than that, and there is nothing greater that Jesus could do for anyone than give them opportunity to believe, and this passage shows that love (John 11:15, 25, 26, 42).

Contextual Analysis

It is necessary to explore the various contexts of John 11:1-46 in order to better understand the passage and to give insight into its meaning, as well as to protect against error in exposition. In this section the immediate and far contexts will be investigated.

John 11:1-46 in the Immediate Context

In order to better understand the passage that has been chosen, it is important to look at the immediate context. John 11:1-46 is positioned in fifth and last stage of the “Festival Cycle.”[80] This cycle begins with a Sabbath introduction in chapter five, to Passover in six verse four, through Tabernacles to Dedication and here in chapter eleven moves back to focus on Passover once more (11:55).[81] John has also shown the readers the ever increasing desire of the Jews to kill Jesus (starting in 5:18) and it is in this chapter that the plot is at its climax with the official plot to murder Jesus (11:47-53).[82]

In regards to when the raising of Lazarus took place, there are not really any textual markers to allow one to be perfectly dogmatic. For while the story finds itself in a period following the Feast of Dedication (chapter 10) and before the last Passover of Jesus (11:55-57) it is not told when the raising took place in the midst of that period.[83] While the Sanhedrin does meet at the end of the chapter (vv. 46-53), it does not seem that this is a parallel passage with Mark 14:1-2 which occurred two days before the Passover, but rather it would seem best to see the meeting referred to in John 11 to have been an earlier meeting.[84]

The chapter begins with the death of Lazarus (vv. 1-16) continuing with Jesus’ meeting with Martha (vv. 17-27), and Mary (vv. 28-32), climaxing with the resurrection of Lazarus (vv. 33-44), and this section closing with the reactions to this sign (vv. 45-46f.).

John 11:1-46 in the Context to the Whole of John

This sign is in fact “the climactic sign in the Gospel of John.”[85] It is also the “seventh sign”[86] in the book. In regards to the “signs” contained in the Gospel of John, the book begins with the “Cana Cycle”[87] (2:11-4:54), and although the word “sign” is not used in the immediate context of all, it is clear that John viewed these events as signs (7:31 and 11:47). This section brings an end to the direct signs given by Jesus until the resurrection.[88] The book begins with signs that could almost be seen as mere “sleight of hand,” that is, unless you were present at the time to see. The water became wine (2:11), and no one really knew it except those who were there watching (a very few). The second sign, the healing of a royal official’s son, took place at a distance, so again, was not really seen by many, and could even be interpreted as just a natural occurrence or happenstance.

These signs work so as to begin to draw the reader in to believing in Jesus.[89] But the “Festival Cycle”[90] is introduced with the healing of a paralytic (5:7-9), a healing without question, demanding a decision to be made as to who this Jesus is. The next signs were no mere sleight of hand, the feeding of the multitude (6:10-13) and Jesus’ power over the storm (6:18-21), leading the reader to begin to see exactly who Jesus was – he was no mere man! This led the people to, with their preconceived notions about the Messiah, to desire to make Jesus king (6:15), but Jesus then made it clear, he was not what they thought, and many abandoned him (6:60, 66).

This leads John to focus on the response of the Jewish religious leaders, seen in 9:18-19 to vehemently deny the reality of Jesus’ healing of the man who was born blind, excommunicating that very man. But the climax is in chapter 11, for the religious leaders can no longer deny the miracles of Jesus – “the only question was, Would the authorities who operated within their closed religious system be willing to recognize a messenger from God who ‘colored outside their lines’?”[91] The answer is obviously no, and chapter 11 shows this incredible act of unbelief which John builds up in such a way that an honest reader just gasps at the incredible hardness of heart of the Jewish religious leaders. Death is looming from the end of chapter 11 on in a very big way,[92] and John uses the suspense to record a focused account of Jesus leading up to the cross that his readers might “believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name” (John 20:31).[93]

John 11:1-46 in the Context of the New Testament

Moving outward yet again in the discussion of the context of John 11:1-46, it is important to know that almost universally, this gospel is viewed to be the latest of the four canonical Gospels.[94] This is important because the direction John takes in his gospel is relatively independent from that of the synoptic gospels.[95] This difference has been a topic of much contention among scholars,[96] but remembering that his gospel was written after all the others (around 85 to 90 A.D.)[97] helps understand why it would take on a different approach, he told what had been untold as it were, and emphasized those aspects which went with the purpose of his writing, that his readers would believe. John even himself admits that he did not include everything that Jesus did (21:25), so the argument is really uncalled for. John was on the inside, he was the one who Jesus gave his mother to at the cross, and so the debate as to where he got his information does not really provide any profitable information, other than we see that he wrote it and that the Holy Spirit guided him along, and it truly is a beautiful account of our Lord’s life. John’s gospel is truly “one of the most captivating books of the Bible”[98] and presents the reader with the offer of eternal life in Jesus. This gospel is ideal for teaching, whether or not one takes its audience as Jewish, for “most of the periscopes in the Gospel are styled according to a teaching format.”[99] It is, “a pool in which a child may wade and an elephant can swim.”[100] It is for new beginners, and mature believers.

John 11:1-46 in the Context of the Old Testament

The Old Testament seems to have played a large role in the writing of this gospel, John was very knowledgeable in the Old Testament and quotes it a number of times, some from the Septuagint and other times he makes his own translation from the Hebrew.[101] But even John’s quotation of the Old Testament does not compare with Matthew’s.[102] It does seem that one of John’s main emphasis in the view of Old Testament is showing that Jesus is better than Moses, with the language of 1:14 and 17 brining into mind the Shekinah glory among the people of God in the wilderness.[103] Jesus is God’s Passover Lamb (1:29, 36)[104] and therefore the ultimate type as set out in the Law. He is the “Messiah” (1:41) and the “Son of Man” (1:51).[105] Christ’s “lifting up” produces more complete healing than the snake in the desert (3:14 f.), and he is the bread of life, not like the manna, but he is the “true” manna from God (6:30-59). Jesus is even seen as the fulfiller of the Jewish feasts: Passover (chapter 6), Tabernacles (chapter 7), and Dedication (chapter 10).[106] Even the “I am” statements ring boldly of Old Testament passages, that Jesus is very God of God. And like God, Jesus has authority over the Sabbath because he was sent by God (5:10-24).[107] And the list goes on, for the gospel is laced with references to the Old Testament – his goal is to show the reader that Jesus brings completion to God’s purposes as the Old Testament pointed to Christ.[108]

Authorship

The traditional view is that the Apostle John wrote the book, but many modern western scholars have abandoned that idea.[109] And although some might say that a discussion of authorship is pointless, there actually is much to be lost or gained in such a expedition. For tide up in authorship is whether or not it was written by an eye witness or by some second-century Christian who never laid eyes on Christ. We turn now to the evidence in order to show that the Apostle John was the author of this gospel.

In the epilogue (21:2) the “sons of Zebedee” are named and named nowhere else in the gospel, also there is a disciple who is referred to with vague designations throughout the book (“the disciple whom Jesus loved,” “another disciple,” the one “known to the high priest”), giving a sense that there was a calculated effort to avoid using a name. This is contrasted with the fact that the gospel specifically names most of those who make two or more appearances.[110] “The disciple whom Jesus loved” is seen clearly to be the author of this book (21:20-24).[111] This “one” is also seen to only be named in the second half of the Gospel, and with that, many times along with Peter and many times appearing in a more favorable light than Peter.[112] The unnamed disciple is the one closer at the last supper, with Peter using him as a mediator of sorts (13:23-26), and he even reaches the empty tomb before Peter and “believed” (20:3-8); later he sees the risen Jesus and tells Peter (21:7); and finally Peter is scolded for comparing himself with this “one” (21:20-22). There is definitely a pattern here. In chapter 21:1-14 tells us the names of seven of the disciples with the sons of Zebedee and “two others of his disciples,” but we still do not know which of these four is the “beloved disciple.”[113]

From the other gospels we know that Peter, James and John formed the inner circle of Jesus, and because James was martyred early (Acts 12:2), this leaves him out as a viable option. Therefore only John is left. Also great care is taken with other names, in order for there to be no confusion, except with John the Baptist, for in John’s gospel, he is referred to plainly as “John” with no other designation.[114] The first external designation as John as the author of this gospel seems to be Theophilus of Antioch (A.D. 180).[115] Irenaeus also witnesses to Johannine authorship and his source appears to be Polycarp who was a disciple of the Apostle John. Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian also agree with Johannine authorship.[116] The main point is, there was no other name offered as the author of this book. Based on these facts, it is clear John wrote this gospel.


Expose the Text’s Structure

I. The Death of Lazarus (vv. 1-16)

II. Jesus’ Meeting with Martha (vv. 17-27)

III. Jesus’ Meeting with Mary (vv. 28-32)

IV. The Resurrection of Lazarus (vv. 33-44)

V. The Reactions to this Sign (vv. 45-46f.)


[1] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 48-49.

[2] William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, “Based on Walter Bauer’s Griechisch-Deutsches Wr̲terbuch Zu Den Schriften Des Neuen Testaments Und Der Frhchristlichen [Sic] Literatur, Sixth Edition, Ed. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, With Viktor Reichmann and on Previous English Editions by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker.”, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 1008.

[3] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek: Practical Helps for Reading the New Testament (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1989), 386.

[4] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 79-81.

[5] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 83-84.

[6] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 386.

[7] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 162-63.

[8] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 386.

[9] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), 208.

[10] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 162-63.

[11] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 518-19.

[12] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 475.

[13] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[14] James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Greek (New Testament), electronic ed. (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), GGK2083.

[15] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[16] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 464-65.

[17] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 598.

[18] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[19] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[20] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 689.

[21] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 696.

[22] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[23] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 733.

[24] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 523.

[25] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 387.

[26] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 585.

[27] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 475.

[28] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[29] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 674.

[30] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 957.

[31] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 387.

[32] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[33] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 769.

[34] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[35] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 660.

[36] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 729.

[37] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 568.

[38] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 568.

[39] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[40] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 581.

[41] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[42] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 993.

[43] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[44] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[45] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 993.

[46] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 631.

[47] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 475.

[48] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[49] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 558.

[50] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 558.

[51] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[52] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 449-50.

[53] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 558.

[54] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[55] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[56] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 901.

[57] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 450-51.

[58] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 598.

[59] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[60] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 574.

[61] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[62] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 574.

[63] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 518.

[64] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 557.

[65] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 220.

[66] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[67] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 213.

[68] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 816.

[69] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 818.

[70] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Vols. 5-9 Edited by Gerhard Friedrich. Vol. 10 Compiled by Ronald Pitkin., ed. Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey William Bromiley and Gerhard Friedrich, electronic ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964-c1976), 6:205.

[71] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 6:205-206.

[72] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 6:205-206.

[73] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 6:206.

[74] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 6:222.

[75] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 5.

[76] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 5.

[77] James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Greek (New Testament), electronic ed. (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), GGK26.

[78] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 5.

[79] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 1:44-45.

[80] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346.

[81] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346.

[82] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346.

[83] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), 186.

[84] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), 187.

[85] Merrill C. Tenney, John, ed. Frank Ely Gaebelein, vol. 9, 12 vols., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976), 114.

[86] Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 532.

[87] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346.

[88] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346.

[89] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346.

[90] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 346-47.

[91] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 347.

[92] Johann Peter Lange, The Gospel According to John, trans. Philip Schaff, vol. 9, 12 vols., Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal and Homiletical (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1960), 865.

[93] J. H Bernard, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. John, ed. A. H McNeile, vol. 34, 53 vols., The International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928), 406.

[94] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), xxxv.

[95] D. Moody Smith, Johannine Christianity (London: T & T Clark, 2005), 97-98.

[96] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 37.

[97] Merrill C. Tenney, John, ed. Frank Ely Gaebelein, vol. 9, 12 vols., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976), 9.

[98] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 24.

[99] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 36.

[100] Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 7.

[101] Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 60.

[102] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), lix.

[103] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), lix.

[104] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 61.

[105] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 61.

[106] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), lix.

[107] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 62.

[108] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 63.

[109] Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 8.

[110] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 83.

[111] Merrill C. Tenney, John, ed. Frank Ely Gaebelein, vol. 9, 12 vols., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976), 6.

[112] Gerald L Borchert, John 1-11, ed. E. Ray Clendenen, vol. 25, 31 vols., The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996), 84.

[113] George Raymond Beasley-Murray, John, ed. Ralph P. Martin, vol. 36, 59 vols., 2nd ed., Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999), lxxii.

[114] Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 12.

[115] Leon Morris, The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes, The New International Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971), 21.

[116] Merrill C. Tenney, John, ed. Frank Ely Gaebelein, vol. 9, 12 vols., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976), 5.

Bibliography

Aland, Kurt et al., eds., The Greek New Testament. 4th ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001.

Arndt, William. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Beasley-Murray, George Raymond. John. Edited by Ralph P. Martin. Vol. 36. 59 vols. 2nd ed. Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville, Tenn: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1999.

Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1996.

Bernard, J. H. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St. John. Edited by A. H McNeile. Vol. 34. 53 vols. The International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1928.

Borchert, Gerald L. John 1-11. Edited by E. Ray Clendenen. Vol. 25. 31 vols. The New American Commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1996.

Grudem, Wayne A. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994.

Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology. New York: C. Scribner, 1887.

Kittel, Gerhard. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964.

Lange, Johann Peter. The Gospel According to John. Translated by Philip Schaff. Vol. 9. 12 vols. Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal and Homiletical. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1960.

Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to John: The English Text with Introduction, Exposition and Notes. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971.

New American Standard Bible : 1995 Update. LaHabra, CA: The Lockman Foundation, 1995.

Perschbacher, Wesley J. Refresh Your Greek: Practical Helps for Reading the New Testament. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1989.

Pink, Arthur W. “37. Christ Raising Lazarus (John 11:1-10).” http://www.pbministries.org/books/pink/John/john_37.htm.

—. “38. Christ Raising Lazarus, Continued (John 11:11-27).” http://www.pbministries.org/books/pink/John/john_38.htm.

—. “39. Christ Raising Lazarus, Concluded (John 11:28-44).” http://www.pbministries.org/books/pink/John/john_39.htm.

Rogers, Cleon L. The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998.

Ryle, J. C. . “Sermon on Sickness (John 11:3).” http://www.biblebb.com/files/ryle/PRACT15.TXT.

Smith, D. Moody. Johannine Christianity. London: T & T Clark, 2005.

Spurgeon, C. H. “Oh, How He Loves! (John 11:36),” 1872. http://www.biblebb.com/files/spurgeon/3228.HTM.

Swanson, James. Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains. electronic ed. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.

Tenney, Merrill C. John. Edited by Frank Ely Gaebelein. Vol. 9. 12 vols. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Pub. House, 1976.

Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1980.

Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996.

2 Responses to Exegesis of John 11:1-46 – Lazarus Raised from the Dead

  1. Phil says:

    Could anyone provide me with the author’s name?

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