Philippians 4:1-9

November 16, 2010

Philippians 4:1-9
Therefore my dear brothers and sisters, whom I long to see, my joy and my crown; stand firm in the Lord in this way my beloved.

I urge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to have the same mind in the Lord. Yes, I ask you, my true companion, to help them, because they contended in the Gospel with me and Clement and the rest of my fellow-workers, whose names are in the book of life.

Rejoice in the Lord always, again I say, rejoice!

Let your gentleness be evident to all people—the Lord is near.

Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition with thanksgiving, make your requests known to God. And the peace of God which surpasses all understanding will guard all of your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus.

Finally brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is anything excellent in character, if there is anything praiseworthy, let your thoughts continually dwell on these things.

That which you learned, received, heard, and saw in me, put into practice.  And as a result the God of peace will be with you all.

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Philippians 2:19-30

September 29, 2010

But I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you soon so that I might be encouraged by knowing your situation. For I have no one like-minded who will be genuinely concerned about your condition, for all the others strive for themselves and not Jesus Christ. For you know his proven character, that as a child with a father he slaved for the Gospel. I hope to send him immediately after I see how it will go with me. Nevertheless I am convinced in the Lord that I too will come to you soon. But I consider it necessary to send Epaphroditus, my brother, fellow-worker, fellow-soldier, and your messenger and servant of my need, to you. Because he longs for you and he is anxious because you heard that he was sick. For he was sick, almost near death, but God had mercy on him, and not on him only but also on me, so that I would not have sorrow upon sorrow. Therefore I eagerly send him to you so that when you see him again you might rejoice and I might be free from anxiety regarding this matter. Therefore receive him in the Lord with all grace and look upon those like him with honor. Because on account of the work of Christ he came near the point of death, risking his own life to fill up what was lacking in your service towards me.


Imitate God

July 9, 2009

Therefore be imitators of God as beloved children and walk in love just as Christ loved us and gave himself on our behalf, an offering and sacrifice as a soothing aroma to God.
But sexual immorality, or impurity, or greed must not even be mentioned among you as is fitting among holy ones, neither obscenity, or foolish talk, or course jesting, which are not proper, but rather thanksgiving.
For know this for certain, that no person who is immoral, impure, or greedy (being an idolater) has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.
Let no one deceive you with baseless arguments, for it is because of these things that the wrath of God comes upon all those who are disobedient. Therefore, do not be partakers with them. For you were formally darkness, but now you are children of light in the Lord.  Walk as children of light (for the fruit of the light consists in all goodness, righteousness, and truth), learn what is pleasing to the Lord.
(a translation of Ephesians 5:1-10)


Can the original Greek NT be copyrighted?

March 27, 2009

The answer to this question effects many things in regard to the usage of the Greek text, especially on the internet.  There are different versions of the Greek text, taking what they believe to be the best reading from the many manuscripts that are available and compiling them into one.  But there have been some copyright issues that have come up I thought we all should be aware of:

A Greek Bible web site used by lovers of God’s Word around the world has been shut down by the German/United Bible Society. Why?

Because they are intent upon defending the stream of money they’ve lived off for many years, now, provided by the Greek text of God’s Word they’ve assembled. They claim their text is the closest anyone can possibly get to the original autographs inspired by the Holy Spirit.

So think about this. The better they do their job, the closer they will be to claiming copyright for the very word of God.

Check out the full post here: Copyrighting the Holy Spirit’s words, then living off the profit…


Greek Word Study of ἀγαπάω (agape, agapeo, love)

October 21, 2008

This word means simply, love, but can and does have a wider range of meaning. It can mean to “have a warm regard for and interest in another,” “cherish,” “have affection for.”[1] The meaning, “to be grateful”[2] is suggested in Luke 7:47, when Jesus asks, who will love more, someone who was forgiven much, or forgiven little. The word can also mean, “to love based on its regarded value” (John 12:43).[3] This love can be between human beings (such as in Matt. 5:43; Eph. 5:25, 28, 33; Rom. 13:8), or directed from humans to transcendent beings (such as in John 8:42; 1 Pet. 1:8). This love can also be between transcendent beings and humans (Rom. 8:37; 9:13; 2 Thess. 2:16) or between persons of the Godhead (John 3:35; 10:17; 17:26).[4] In the New Testament, “Jesus stands plainly and consciously in the moral tradition of His people. But He demands love with an exclusiveness….love is a matter of will and action….He demands decision and readiness for God and for God alone in an unconditional manner which startles His hearers.”[5] Jesus brought a new meaning to the word, new terms as it were, for while before it was heard that you love your friends and hate your enemies, he called men to love their enemies (Matt. 5:43-44). In the context of this passage, it is clear Jesus felt a strong affection for Lazarus and his sisters (John 11:5), they had a special place in his heart, but in the end, it is very hard to separate Jesus’ love for these, and his love for all who are his (John 13:1). For his love was proved to be true in his death, through which salvation came to all who believe. There is no greater love than that, and there is nothing greater that Jesus could do for anyone than give them opportunity to believe, and this passage shows that love (John 11:15, 25, 26, 42).


[1] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 5.

[2] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 5.

[3] James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Greek (New Testament), electronic ed. (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), GGK26.

[4] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 5.

[5] Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, 1:44-45.


Syntactical Analysis of John 11:1-46

October 21, 2008

Syntactical Analysis (part of a larger exegetical study of John 11:1-46)

Verse 1

Λάζαρος, nominative singular masculine used as a proper name and nominative of apposition to τις ἀσθενῶν[1] therefore modifying the translation of τις to be “a certain one” rather than “someone”[2]

Μαρίας καὶ Μάρθας, both nouns are connected by a coordinating conjunction (καὶ), and both are genitive singular feminine proper names,[3] in a genitive of description relationship with τῆς κώμης.[4]

τῆς ἀδελφῆς, genitive, singular, feminine, a genitive of apposition to Μάρθας. αὐτῆς, pronoun, personal, third person, genitive, singular, feminine, a genitive of relationship,[5] explaining that Martha is Mary’s sister.

Verse 2

ἡ ἀλείψασα, aorist, active, participle, singular, nominative, feminine in apposition to Μαριὰμ.[6]

μύρῳ, noun, dative, singular, neuter, an instrumental dative, describing that which Mary anointed the master with, mainly perfume.[7]

ἐκμάξασα, aorist, active, participle, singular, nominative, feminine in apposition to Μαριὰμ.[8]

ταῖς θριξὶν, dative, plural, feminine noun, an instrumental dative,[9] describing with what Mary wiped dry the feet of the master, with her hair. [10]

Verse 3

ἀσθενεῖ, verb, present, active, indicative, third person, singular, a progressive present, describing action in progress, “at this present time is sick,” especially used in narrative.[11]

Verse 4

δοξασθῇ, verb, aorist, passive, subjunctive, third person, singular with ἵνα purpose clause.[12] This conjunction indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[13] The sickness will therefore result not only in glory to God, but in the end, that the Son might be given glory through it.

Verse 7

ἔπειτα, adverb, “a marker for a sequence of time or events.”[14] Moving the narrative alone, giving specific emphasis to time, and the order in which these events occurred.

Ἄγωμεν, verb, present, active, subjunctive, first person, plural, an hortatory subjunctive,[15] used here (in the first person plural) to exhort oneself and ones associates.[16]

Verse 8

Λιθάσαι, verb, aorist, active, infinitive serving as a complementary infinitive[17] of ἐζήτουν,[18] completing the thought of the “seeking” of the Jews, mainly they were seeking to stone Jesus.

Verse 9

περιπατῇ, verb, present, active, subjunctive, third person, singular, with ἐάν an adverbial, conditional conjunction making this a third class conditional sentence[19] being that it is ἐάν with a subjective mood verb.[20] The third class condition denotes the condition as “uncertain of fulfillment, but still likely – it portrays what is “likely to occur in the future, what could possibly occur.”[21] In this context, it is clear that Jesus is giving a hypothetical situation to illustrate his point, “If someone walks around in the day.”

προσκόπτει, gnomic present,[22] active, indicative, third person, singular verb with a negative particle οὐ.[23] Therefore, the one who walks in the day, will, as a general truth not stumble. The gnomic present is used to make a statement about a general, timeless truth, as it is here.[24]

Verse 13

εἰρήκει, consummative pluperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular verb.[25] The consummative pluperfect (also known as extensive pluperfect) emphasizes the completion of an action in past time, without really focusing on the current results.[26] In this case, it makes it clear that the narrator is speaking, being that he has withdrawn from the scene in the narrative in order to explain in more detail something that those in the story were possibly unaware of.

Verse 15

πιστεύσητε, aorist, active, subjunctive, second person, plural verb with ἵνα purpose clause.[27] This conjunction (ἵνα) indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[28] The reason for Jesus’ rejoicing was not because Lazarus had died, but rather that because Lazarus had died “they might believe”

ὅτι, adverbial, causal conjunction, giving the basis or the grounds for the belief.[29] For if Christ had gone earlier (and assumedly healed Lazarus) there would not have been opportunity for belief. Therefore Jesus’ absence provided opportunity for belief.

Verse 16

συμμαθηταῖς, dative, plural, masculine noun, meaning “fellow disciples,”[30] the indirect object of εἶπεν, denoting to whom Thomas was speaking.

Verse 19

παραμυθήσωνται, aorist, middle, subjunctive, third person, plural verb with ἵνα purpose clause.[31] This conjunction (ἵνα) indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[32] Therefore many of the Jews had come, with the purpose, or aim, of “consoling”[33] Martha and Mary in regards to the death of their brother.

Verse 22

αἰτήσῃ, aorist, middle, subjunctive, second person, singular verb with ὅσα ἂν, relative clause,[34] therefore that which asked for is unspecified,[35] and in this case translated as “whatever you ask.”[36]

Verse 23

Ἀναστήσεται predictive future, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb denoting that something, mainly Lazarus rising, will come to pass. The time from when such a verb is used and the fulfillment is unknown; only that it will happen.[37]

Verse 24

ἀναστήσεται, future, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb with prepositional phrase marked by ἐν. Martha affirms Jesus’ statement that Lazarus will rise again, but gets more specific as far as when, mainly: “in the resurrection at the last day.”

Verse 25

ζήσεται, predictive future, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb denoting that something, mainly those that believes in Jesus will live; it will come to pass even if they die – it is certain. The time from when such a verb is used and the fulfillment is unknown; only that it will happen.[38]

Verse 28

λάθρᾳ, adverb of manner.[39] Modifying εἰποῦσα, telling the manner in which Martha spoke to Mary, mainly “secretly,” or “privately.”[40]

Verse 29

ταχὺ, adverb of manner.[41] Modifying ἠγέρθη, informing the manner in which Mary stood up, “quickly.”[42]

Verse 31

παραμυθούμενοι, present, middle, participle, plural, nominative, masculine attributive participle of Ἰουδαῖοι.[43]

ταχέως, ταχὺ, adverb of manner.[44] Modifying ἀνέστη, informing the manner in which Mary stood up, “quickly,”[45] but this time it is in regards to the crowd seeing her get up and then following her.

δόξαντες, aorist, active, causal participle, plural, nominative, masculine showing the cause or reason or ground of the action of the finite verb.[46] Therefore, the Jews followed Mary because they thought she was going to the tomb to grieve.

κλαύσῃ, aorist, active, subjunctive, third person, singular verb with ἵνα purpose clause.[47] This conjunction (ἵνα) indicates the “goal or aim of an action.”[48] The crowd thought that Mary had gotten up for the purpose of going to grieve at the tomb.

Verse 33

κλαίουσαν, present, active, participle, singular, accusative, feminine serving as the object complement with αὐτὴν.

συνελθόντας, aorist, active, participle, plural, accusative, masculine serving as a substantive participle as the direct object along with αὐτὴν of εἶδεν. Jesus saw her (Mary) and the ones coming together with her.

ἐνεβριμήσατο, ingressive aorist, middle, indicative, third person, singular verb. The ingressive aorist stresses the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state.[49] The context (when he saw) shows that Jesus’ action started in the moment he saw; therefore a translation of “he became deeply moved” best communicates the scene.

ἐτάραξεν, aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular – also an ingressive aorist, linked with the previous ingressive by the coordinating conjunction καὶ. The ingressive aorist stresses the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state.[50] Therefore translation should reflect this beginning, but because of the coordinating conjunction and the previous ingressive aorist, simply stating, “and troubled” would suffice because the notion of the action beginning is giving in the first verb and carried over by the coordinating conjunction to this verb.

Verse 34

τεθείκατε, perfect, active, indicative, second person, plural verb with Ποῦ[51] serving as an interrogative indicative which is a question that expects an assertion to be made, it expects a declarative indicative in answer to the question.[52] Therefore, when Jesus asks where they have laid Lazarus, he expects an answer to be given.

Verse 35

ἐδάκρυσεν, ingressive aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular verb. The ingressive aorist stresses the beginning of an action or the entrance into a state.[53] The context places emphasis on order of occurrence, only after they answered Jesus question as to where Lazarus was, telling him to come and see does he cry. Or rather, “he began to cry,” or “he burst into tears.”[54]

Verse 36

ἐφίλει, imperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular verb with πῶς[55] as an exclamation[56] of the declarative indicative nature of the verb (ἐφίλει). The indicative is used in this case to present an unqualified statement.[57]

Verse 37

ἀνοίξας, aorist, active, substantive participle, singular, nominative, masculine serving as the subject of Οὐκ ἐδύνατο. Translated as, “Could not this man who opened the eyes…”

ποιῆσαι, aorist, active, complementary infinitive of Οὐκ ἐδύνατο, serving as a “helper” verb completing the thought of what Jesus was able to do, that is, he was able (Οὐκ ἐδύνατο) to make or cause (ἀνοίξας).[58]

Verse 38

ἐμβριμώμενος, present, middle, participle, singular, nominative, masculine, a temporal participle of contemporaneous action with ἔρχεται.[59] This normally should be translated “while doing.” In this context, the temporal participle of contemporaneous action shows that when Jesus came to the tomb, he was “deeply moved” at the same time. The use of the commas in the NASB shows this contemporaneous action well in the English.

Verse 39

τετελευτηκότος, perfect, active, participle, singular, genitive, masculine, intensive perfect,[60] serving as a genitive of relationship to ἀδελφὴ.[61] The intensive perfect emphasizes the result, or current state produced by a past action (in this case, death).[62]

ὄζει, descriptive present, active, indicative, third person, singular verb. The descriptive (also known as Progressive Present) is used to describe a current scene, progress within a scene, especially in narrative.[63] It normally involves continuous action, therefore in this context, it is putting emphasis on the current, at this present time, right now “stink” in the tomb, and the consequences if the tomb was opened.

Verse 41

εὐχαριστῶ, present, active, indicative, first person, singular, a progressive present emphasizing the current scene in progress, the “right now,” and therefore a legitimate translation could be, “right now, I give you thanks.”

Verse 43

ἐκραύγασεν, constative aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular verb. The constative aorist places no emphasis on the nature of the verb, but stresses only the fact that it occurred.[64]

δεῦρο, imperative adverb, almost used as a verb[65] translated with ἔξω as “come out!”

Verse 44

τεθνηκὼς, perfect, active, participle, singular, nominative, masculine, subjunctive participle serving as the subject of ἐξῆλθεν, “the one who had died came out.”[66]

Verse 46

δὲ, contrastive particle contrasting those that believed and those that did not.[67]


[1] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 48-49.

[2] William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, “Based on Walter Bauer’s Griechisch-Deutsches Wr̲terbuch Zu Den Schriften Des Neuen Testaments Und Der Frhchristlichen [Sic] Literatur, Sixth Edition, Ed. Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, With Viktor Reichmann and on Previous English Editions by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker.”, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 1008.

[3] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek: Practical Helps for Reading the New Testament (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1989), 386.

[4] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 79-81.

[5] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 83-84.

[6] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 386.

[7] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 162-63.

[8] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 386.

[9] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic and Exegetical Key to the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1998), 208.

[10] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 162-63.

[11] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 518-19.

[12] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 475.

[13] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[14] James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains : Greek (New Testament), electronic ed. (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), GGK2083.

[15] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[16] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 464-65.

[17] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 598.

[18] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[19] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[20] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 689.

[21] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 696.

[22] Cleon L Rogers, The New Linguistic, 208.

[23] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 733.

[24] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 523.

[25] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 387.

[26] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 585.

[27] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 475.

[28] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[29] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 674.

[30] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 957.

[31] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 387.

[32] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[33] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 769.

[34] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[35] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 660.

[36] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 729.

[37] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 568.

[38] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 568.

[39] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[40] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 581.

[41] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[42] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 993.

[43] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[44] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[45] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 993.

[46] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 631.

[47] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 475.

[48] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 676.

[49] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 558.

[50] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 558.

[51] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[52] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 449-50.

[53] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 558.

[54] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 388.

[55] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[56] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 901.

[57] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 450-51.

[58] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 598.

[59] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[60] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 574.

[61] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[62] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 574.

[63] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 518.

[64] Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar, 557.

[65] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 220.

[66] Wesley J Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek, 389.

[67] William Arndt, A Greek-English Lexicon, 213.


Is it God who energizes?

October 26, 2007

No, we’re not talking Star Trek here…

This subject was brought to my attention through a blog called “Energetic Procession” in a post entitled: “St Gregory Palamas on Eunomios and more” the post ending something along these lines: “These things in Scripture are not pointing to who God is but to our synergy in salvation. It tells of our freedom of will because God is unchanging in willing all men to be saved but yet few are chosen.”

I asked a few questions, being that I don’t really know all that much about the Orthodox church – and I was told to read an article by a man named David Bradshaw. I want to focus on that article, and begin to interact with what was said (there are many things said, I am only focusing on one thing in this post). I am spending the time to do this because it is important for me to interact with Scripture and be convinced of what I believe, to grow deeper in my knowledge of God so that I may worship Him more fully and love Him more completely; and looking at other’s differing opinions is one way to do that.

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